Saturday, May 23, 2020

Epidemiology, Tuberculosis, and the Homeless Population

Epidemiology, Tuberculosis, and the Homeless Population Rebecca J Buck NUR 408 July 29, 2013 Felita Patterson Epidemiology, Tuberculosis, and the Homeless Population Among many misconceptions, tuberculosis is not a disease of the past. Tuberculosis remains a public health issue. It is estimated that one-third of the total world population is infected by tuberculosis (TB). The American lung association (2013) states, in 2011 alone there were nearly 9,000,000 new diagnosed cases of tuberculosis around the world and an estimated 1.4 million deaths because of this disease. In the United States, TB is not as common (but still a problem). In 2011, only 10,500 people reported having TB (Trends in Tuberculosis Morbidity and†¦show more content†¦Little was known about treatment and prevention of the disease at that time. It was not until 1953 that the United States began collecting data and reports on the 84,304 new cases of TB. This data could be used in research. TB was recognized as a preventable deadly disease, and a common goal to eradicate TB was adopted. Over the next 32 years, the ne w TB cases dropped 74%. By 1985, there were only 22,201 TB cases. History notes that law makers and public health officials became complacent and thought they had found the solution for eradicating TB. Resources for TB surveillance, prevention, and treatment options were reduced, while homeless numbers increased. This changed history as from 1985 to 1992 TB rates started to increase. Data collected from demographic regions and surveillance records show TB cases rose by 20% in those seven years to equal new 26,673 cases, and the estimated number of TB cases (old and new cases together) during that time was more than 64,000 cases. This was the last recorded peek in TB history. Since 1992, there has been a decrease of 67% in all TB cases. Studies reflect this decrease from 10.5 to 3.4 per 100,000 persons. Much credit for this continued decline is attributed to state and federal aid in addition to the state and local programs aimed at fighting TB and the helping the homeless population. Continued public education, proactive surveillance,Show MoreRelatedEpidemiology1298 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Epidemiology Paper Roshanda Dixon Grand Canyon University: NRS-427V March 27, 2015 Abstract According to the reading epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of the health related stated or events (WHO, 2013). The purpose of this study is to gain control of the disease and other major health issues. Tuberculosis is one of the most largest nationwide diseases that are spread throughout the continent. The description of the disease along with how it’s spreadRead MoreThe Tuberculosis Epidemiology Of Louisiana Essay1148 Words   |  5 PagesThe Tuberculosis Epidemiology of Louisiana Tuberculosis (TB) is brought on by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The microorganisms more often than not assault the lungs, however TB microbes can assault any part of the body, for example, the kidney, spine, and mind. Not everybody infected with TB microbes gets to be sick. Therefore, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB infection. If not treated legitimately, TB can be deadly (CDC, 2016). TB microbes areRead MoreThe Causes Of The BCG Interventions1223 Words   |  5 Pagesin 1921 and then BCG was accepted in Europe (Daniel, 2006; Frith, 2014). United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF; now United Nations Children’s Fund) sponsored a campaign that enabled many children to be vaccinated against tuberculosis with BCG. It has been given to more than 120 million people around the world every year and over four billion vaccinations have been performed (Dalmia and Ramsay, 2012). Thus, WHO has continued to recommend BCG for neonates (WHO, 2017). JapaneseRead MoreTuberculosis1443 Words   |  6 PagesTuberculosis also known as TB, is a serious disease that affects millions of people world-wide each year. This respiratory illness usually infects the lungs, although it can affect any part of body or both at the same time. The agent that causes TB is mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found easily in the environment such as soil and water but M. tuberculosis can only survive in its human hosts. About one-third of the human population has tuberculosis. This highlyRead MoreConcepts Within Community And Public Health1362 Words   |  6 Pages Epidemiology ADELAIDE DCOSTA Grand Canyon University Concepts in community and public health NRS-427V Sheila Hicks August 16, 2014 Epidemiology World Health Organization has called Tuberculosis the second greatest killer caused by a single infectious agent after HIV and AIDS, it has been declared as a public health crisis which is contagious, deadly and with grave consequences for those affected. Tuberculosis is found more often inRead MoreTuberculosis, A, And Tertiary Prevention Of The Disease Essay1343 Words   |  6 PagesEpidemiology of Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is one of the major threats to the public health. It is poverty related disease and has affected millions of lives globally, mostly in the third world country. Prisoners, homeless people, and poor people are high risk for tuberculosis in the United States of America. Although the cases of tuberculosis (TB) infection has declined in recent years but eradication of this disease has been out of reach globally. This paper will describe the demographic and clinicalRead MoreEpidemiology Essay on Tuberculosis1735 Words   |  7 PagesEpidemiology Paper on Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), also known as TB, is a disease spread by respiratory inhalation of droplets that contain the bacteria. Tuberculosis is an ancient disease that has been traced back at least 9000 years. In 1882, Dr. Robert Koch was the first physician to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the germ responsible for tuberculosis. However, treatment that was evidenced based was not put into practice until the 20th century. ItRead MorePublic Health And Health Promotion Issues2662 Words   |  11 Pages2000) Public health is a pro-active field of medicine that is concerned primarily with improving the health of populations rather than just the health of individuals. The challenge of maintaining the health of populations is the responsibility of health care professionals and the optimal use of available resources can assure overall improvement in health promotion within a population. This essay will explore and critically analyse a practice-based scenario introduced in the module analysing specificRead MoreTb - Epidemiology and Nursing Role Essay1789 Words   |  8 PagesTuberculosis: Epidemiology and Nursing Role Tuberculosis has been a persistent threat to the human race as far back as Hippocrates (c.460-c.370 BC). Globally, tuberculosis has infected millions during waves, often killing scores of people at a time, and then receding giving it an almost supernatural quality (Daniel, 2006). In recent history tuberculosis has been recorded in all corners of the world, and currently infects one third of the global population. In 2012, TB was responsible for killingRead MoreTuberculosis Essay1779 Words   |  8 PagesEpidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis Kyle J. Patzner Grand Canyon University: Concepts in Community and Public Health January 12, 2014 Tuberculosis has long been a disease that the human culture has been dealing with which entails significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. With dealing with such a horrific disease over the years, discoveries and evolution on the appropriate ways to contain, diagnose, and challengingly treat the disease has changed. One of the most concerning complications

Monday, May 18, 2020

Book Review of Seeds of Terror Essay - 982 Words

Book Review of Seeds of Terror The book entitled, â€Å"Seeds of Terror†, examines evidence of terrorist activity in Southeast Asian countries. It is an eyewitness account by Maria A. Ressa, about Al-Qaeda’s Center of Operations emerging in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. She recollects her own, as she has lived through many of the terrorists’ attacks in the region. Over the years, al-Qaeda successfully infiltrated and co-opted homegrown Muslim movements in: North America, Europe, the Middle East, Chechnya, Kashmir, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Groups from these regions have their own domestic agendas, but they are also pushing al-Qaeda’s anti-Western goals. Through al-Qaeda, terrorist†¦show more content†¦The lessons hadn’t been learned, and seven years and hundreds of intelligence documents later, it comes down to meticulously connecting the dots to find it leading to the same small group of men inciting a global jihad. The leaders of al Qaeda who pla nned the September 11 attacks are the very same people who set up the terrorist networks and activated their plots in the region. It is through these networks that al Qaeda has helped trigger and fuel the jihad in Asia. Based on evidence of her own investigation, the Bali bombing was indeed the work of al-Qaeda, which provided funds, training, and some of the personnel to supplement Jemaah Islamiyah’s home grown recruiting. It was the orders from al-Qaeda’s number two that Jemaah Islamiyah switched from Plan A in Singapore to Plan B in Bali. Malaysia is often cited as a model for Southeast Asia. It was only after the September 11 attacks, that it became clear that there was an entrenched al-Qaeda network in Malaysia. It also became apparent that the network had other ambitious plots developing simultaneously with the 9/11 attack. In 2002, KSM, former military chief of al Qaeda, sent Zacarias Moussaoui to the Malaysian Flying Academy, to see whether he could train to fly the wide-bodied aircraft. KSM said Moussaoui used the money he was given for flightShow MoreRelatedThe Eye and Poem to my Husband from my Fathers Daughter Essay1671 Words   |  7 Pagestruths they reveal, firstly in â€Å"The Eye,† how one learns to hate, and then resent and in â€Å"A Poem to my Husband from My Father’s Daughter,† how a woman come to terms with her father’s legacy. The first poem I will discuss is from the first portion of the book and as I analyze the piece, it is easy to see the distinction between the tone of the two poems. â€Å"The Eye† begins by saying: â€Å"Bad Grandfather wouldn’t feed us. He turned the lights out when we tried to read†(19). This line is a stark image that drawsRead MoreThe Sixth Decade : The New Shape Of Nuclear Danger Essay1457 Words   |  6 PagesJonathan Schell’s book The Seventh Decade: The New Shape of Nuclear Danger gives an in depth look at how the world has been shaped seven decades after the creation of the nuclear bomb. In this book Schell provides a brief history of how the bomb came to be, argues how having the bomb changed the geopolitical landscape of the world, and how the current non-proliferation treaties, and recent government administrations are reviving a danger that has not been seen since the cold war. Schell doesn’t stopRead MoreOctavia Butler Essay3243 Words   |  13 Pagesdrive. 2. What have you written? Novels, short stories, and essays. Ive had 10 novels published so far. They are PATTERNMASTER, MIND OF MY MIND, SURVIVOR, KINDRED, WILD SEED, CLAYS ARK, DAWN, ADULTHOOD RITES, IMAGO, and PARABLE OF THE SOWER. Doubleday published the first five originally. Warner has reprinted WILD SEED, MIND OFMYMIND, CLAY’S ARK, and PATTERNMASTER. KINDRED has been reprinted by Beacon Press. DAWN, ADULTHOOD RITES, IMAGO, and PARABLE OF THE SOWER are available from WarnerRead MoreUS Support for the State of Israel Essay1421 Words   |  6 Pagescoalition between Israel’s Jewish and evangelical Christians supporters has had an important influence upon U.S. Middle East policy† (Friedman 51). Former President George W. Bush has expressed an understanding for Israel’s tactics in response for terror attacks. House Republican Dick Amey of Texas has even suggested that Palestine ought to be the one to surrender land not Israel. Yet still some oppose the work of Christian Zionism. Stephen Seizer in Christian Zionism and Its Impact on U.S. ForeignRead MoreReview of Bitter Fruit by Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer3197 Words   |  13 PagesBitter Fruit by Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer Book Review and Critical Analysis The year is 1954. Government agencies resurrect secret plans previously discarded until a more forceful administration comes to power. Behind the scenes, the CIA and State Department are fervently working in over time trying to engineer a government overthrow against a populist nationalist in their own backyard who has the dare audacity to threaten both US economic and geopolitical interest. AccusationsRead MoreEssay on The Religious Power2097 Words   |  9 Pagesculture and actions. Take Israel for example, while in the modern context they may also be a young nation, if you were to ask an Israeli national they would tell you that their nation is as old as the Old Testament or the Torah as they call their holy book. They trace their lineage all the way back past the temple of Solomon where they believe the Wailing Wall still stands. People have fought for their beliefs and been driven by their need and desire to be a nation since these ancient times. In aRead MoreAmy Low ell1937 Words   |  8 Pagesinability to spell. Lowell wrote her first poem at the age of nine called â€Å"Chacago,† which was written as a testament to her spelling problem. She began attending a series of private schools in Brookline and Boston in the fall of 1883. Lowell was â€Å"the terror of the faculty† at school. She also attended Mrs. Cabot’s school which was founded by a Lowell cousin to educate her own children and the children of friends and relatives. Lowell was â€Å"totally indifferent to classroom decorum. Noisy, opinionatedRead MoreGeorge Wilhelm Friedrich and the French Revolution Essay1881 Words   |  8 PagesReign of Terror and French Revolution had a huge impact on Germany and Europe, and Hegel became caught up in the fervor and outrage of the period and wanted to take a deeper look at the events that were occurring. His look and analysis of the French Revolution is what began his reflection of history. After graduation from the seminary, Hegel joined the faculty of the University of Jena, the philosophic center of Germany. While there, he wrote Phenomenology of Spirit, his first major book. Hegel leftRead MoreThe Culture Of European Countries1775 Words   |  8 Pageswomen were traditionally involved in villager’s leadership activities.(42) Okonkwo went to see Nwakibie a man with highest title which one can take in their clan with a pot of palm-wine and a cock. Okonkwo worked for Nwakibie to earn his first Yam seeds. When the palm-wine was distributed to villagers, the wine was equally distributed to the wives of Nwakibie also. †¦..the group drank, beginning with the eldest man †¦Nwakibie sent for his wives†¦Anasi was the first wife and the others could not drinkRead MoreLove, Lust, and Tragedy in William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet1768 Words   |  8 Pagesturns out terrible. Usually it ends in death but it also has alternatives, such as: tragic loss, separation, or heart break. Three things about love that are covered in the play Romeo and Juliet are romance, fairytales, and sacrifice. Romance is a seed waiting to blossom in the presence of extreme feelings for another. Hazlitt thinks Romeo and Juliet is a portrayal of how love in generations changes and goes threw an evolution and it cannot be defined (Hazlitt). Schlegel thinks Love in a romance

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Deontological Ethics - 881 Words

Deontological Ethics in Location-based Social Media There are so many location aware applications on my â€Å"smart† phone; I do not know how I could have lived without these features. There are applications that tell me where is the closes gym that I am a member of. There are applications that give me information on the weather of the current city. There are even applications that will locate the closest â€Å"driver† to taxi me wherever I want to go. And of course, all these can be shared on facebook or various other social networking sites. With the narrowing gap of our online presence and real life, these bring on various questions on the data that we provide and who can see. As with all technology issues in the current age, privacy is a†¦show more content†¦In the gadget world, this has been a huge issue with every handset manufacturer suing eachother, wanting courts to put injunctions on their products so they don’t have a competition. The e nd result might be that the company sells few more gadgets but stifles the competition hurting the users. The flipside is true for these manufacturers. While these intellectual properties’ specific process might be easy to judge, design processes are subjective. When companies sue and win injunctions on other gadgets because they â€Å"look alike† would be immoral in that while they reach an end result they might prefer, they are going about in an obscure way. The users will have to use these services with their moral conscience as well. A user could encounter a service at a restaurant that they pay for that is not up to the standards; they can post up on Yelp or similar review sites about that restaurant. These reviews are valuable to the restaurants and they will do the best they can to please the customers. If the reviews are malicious in nature, they will not be moral. However, if the review is a critique of the restaurant in a manner that it will bring light to the issues, it will be moral. Moral absolutism states that some actions are absolutely right or wrong. If providers are not clear with their intentions on how to use the user’s location based dataShow MoreRelatedDeontological Ethics : Ethics And Ethics1256 Words   |  6 Pages Deontological Ethics Deontological Ethics are based on normative ethics position that judges the morality of an action that in line with rules. In other words, deontology falls within the nomenclature of moral theories that guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do (deontic theories), in contrast to (aretaic [virtue] theories) that—fundamentally, at least—guide and assess what kind of person (in terms of character traits) we are and should be. In contemporary moral philosophy, deontologyRead MoreEssay on Exploration of Deontological Ethics833 Words   |  4 PagesExploration of Deontological Ethics Deontological ethics is concerned not with the action itself but the consequences of the action. Moral value is conferred by virtue of the actions in themselves. If a certain act is wrong, then it is wrong in all circumstances and conditions, irrespective of the consequences. This view of ethic stands in opposition to teleological views such as utilitarianism, which hold the view that the consequences of an action determine its moralRead MoreDefinitions And Development Of Deontological And Teleological Ethics1039 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction This essay will include the background and development of deontological and teleological ethics. Also, it will compare and contrast the absolute and relative ethics. Finally, it will contain the ethical issues which can affect the operational activities of the business. In order to support the points, it will also include the real life examples. AC 1.1 - Background and development of ethical approaches Teleological ethic - this describes an ethical theory which judges the rightness of anRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill, And The Deontological Theory Of Ethics1873 Words   |  8 PagesFrequently brought up in modern conversations between â€Å"everyday† people and behavioral researchers alike, issues regarding morality and ethics have become increasingly prevalent. With the current global political climate drawing attention to and/or raising awareness for various humanitarian crises, such as the massive destruction in Puerto Rico that has left the entire island in ruin or refugee Rohingya people fleeing persecution in Myanmar and Bangladesh, it is imperative to understand the logisticsRead MoreDeontological, Teleological And Virtue Ethics926 Words   |  4 PagesWhen making decisions, especially critical ones, one can never be certain of the outcome to follow. An examination of three differing schools of thought Deontological, Teleological and Virtue ethics and lastly my own personal ethical paradigm will be considered for the following scenario. As platoon commander you are faced with choosing to abandon a village to its fate as enemy solders move in on your position or to disobey direct orders and intervene. The choice will carry dire consequences regardlessRead MoreEthics, Deontological, And Virtue1690 Words   |  7 Pagestoday’s society, we are all expected to be more open-minded and respecting of others way of life and culture. That’s what being a Global Citizen is about. Through Global Ethics we have learned so far, that we can all relate to three important moral theories. These theories are known as Consequentialist (Utilitarian), Deontological, and Virtue. Through this paper I will also be discussing a case study found in chapter two, based on the Selling of Human Body Parts, and how it’s seen through the lensesRead MoreDeontological Moral Systems : Ethics1532 Words   |  7 PagesDeontological moral systems are usually primarily by a focus upon adherence to independent moral rules or duties. In order to make the correct decisions, we just have to know and understand what a moral way to think or act, and what is the right way to act and respect the rules that exist which regulate those duties. When we follow our way of living, then we are behaving morally. When we fail to follow our duty, we are behaving immorally. It is very important to know that in deontological moralRead MoreUtilitarian And Deontological View Of Ethics1313 Words   |  6 Pagesfrom describing the various details of the issue, I will provide my position on the matter, as well as my reasoning for it. I will also that the considerations of this issue, and explore how it is that they relate to the utilitarian and deontological view of ethics. In doing so will cover who will be hurt, who will be benefitted, who’s rights are involved, who has special duties pertaining to this issue, and why I think that my position is the greatest good over the long haul. By accomplishing thisRead MoreDeontological Vs. Utilitarian Ethics1924 Words   |  8 Pages Deontological vs. Utilitarian Ethics There are two major ethical theories, deontological and utilitarian. Both theories are based on moral rules. These theories attempt to justify the principles and moral rules. In every culture something is defined as either right or wrong, not just wrong or right as a whole. Every society must define what is right or wrong and no universal truths will exist across cultures, this is defined as moral relativism. What is right and what is wrong may be differentRead MoreUtilitarianism And Deontological Ethics : Utilitarianism3422 Words   |  14 Pages UTILITARIANISM AND DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS 13 Utilitarianism and Deontological Ethics Christopher Kearney Student ID 4697583 American Public University System (AMU) Dr. Robert Watkins September 21,2017 Abstract Usefulness and duty are two of the primary drivers that cause people to take action or not. Usefulness of an action means that the society receives the greatest amount of benefits from the action (or actions) of an individual(s). On the other

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Relationships and Mechanical Processes in The Sun Also Rises

Relationships and Mechanical Processes in The Sun Also Rises Relationships are an important part of life. From general friendships to romantic encounters, almost everyone has had some type of relationship. Sometimes relationships can get confusing, especially when love is involved. Most people, such as Lady Brett Ashley, from The Sun Also Rises, feel that love and sex go hand in hand in a romantic relationship. Although it is apparent that she is in love with Jacob Barnes, the main character, since he is not able to have sex, she does not want to try having any type of romantic relationship with him. You mustnt [touch her]. You must know. I cant stand it, thats all. (Hemingway, 34). This idea that one is not†¦show more content†¦Mostly because sometimes these flings become too attached to her and they just hang around all the time, trying to make something more out of it. Bretts gone off with men. But they werent ever Jews, and they didnt come and hang about afterwards.(148). During the war Jake, the main character, had an accident that made having a romantic relationship nearly impossible with anyone but a nun. From this incident, Jakes views on life and love have become quite different from Bretts. He understands that love and sex do not have to go hand in hand, but he also knows that this combination is what most people desire in a relationship. He tries to stay away from any type of romantic relationship because of this knowledge and ventures only into platonic relationships with women. Women made such swell friends. Awfully swell. In the first place, you had to be in love with a woman to have a basis of friendship. (152). It is very difficult for Jake to have to live with only platonic relationships because he was able to have romantic relationships before the war and so knows what he is missing. In order to cope with this reality, he resorts to various methods. The first is to have platonic relationships with as many people as he can. Jake is a nice guy who does not talk about himself very much and gets along with people very well. He knows many people who understand his dilemma and try not to remind him of what he isShow MoreRelatedThe Satire of H.G Wells1560 Words   |  7 Pagesindustrial revolution defined the means, while imperialism dictated who would have eventual control. H.G Wells explores both imperialism and the industrial revolution by taking them to extremes, and through his satire reflects the specific flaws of both processes as they changed the world around him. H.G Wells himself was a left wing socialist. Socialism essentially commands an abolition of class structure and a collective ownership of the means of production (Wikipedia, Socialism). Wells interest inRead MoreWhat The Two Basic Types Of Feedback Loops Are Positive Feedback2986 Words   |  12 Pagesgive an example for each. †¢ The two basic types of feedback loops are positive feedback and negative feedback. Positive feedback is a loop that perpetuates itself; that is, the product of the loop drives the process on. An example of this is the relationship between rising global temperatures and arctic methane release. Large pockets of methane gas are embedded in the permafrost of the Arctic region and global warming has caused accelerated melting of the ice there, resulting in the release of theRead Moresociology4813 Words   |  20 Pagesthe society of Hindu India.   the attributional approach to caste deals with its inherent qualities and features that identifies the whole caste system. hence every caste share these attributes as a part of their identity. attributional approach also tells us about the major features of the cates system and thus provides a analytical view relative to other forms of social stratification. as we know that caste system maintain hirarchiacal order that is each caste is seperated from the otherRead MoreThe Essential Properties Of Consciousness2122 Words   |  9 PagesEvery morning when we wake up, an entire world of images, textures, sounds, and smells emerges around us. We smell coffee, hear a chorus of birds at the windowsill, and squint at the sun filtering through the curtains. We also experience a series of internal sensations: a stream of jumbled thoughts, awareness of ourselves, hunger, pain, happiness. All of this perceptual experience isn’t the natural world; it’s our subjective representation of it. This is the mysterious, impalpable quality we callRead MoreHurricane Katrina s Impact On New Orleans Essay3140 Words   |  13 Pagesregardless of region, some form of displacement of individuals and communities frequently results from the threat or impact of a disaster. Both disaster and forced migration are terms that are used to describe a wide variety of environmental and social processes. Perhaps because the term is so widely and loosely used, disasters are quite difficult to define. Although the term â€Å"disaster† actually refers to a process, essentially the disruption of social functions, it is generally employed to characterizeRead MoreElectricity in Our Lives3797 Words   |  16 Pagessuch as the electrons that are found in the outer parts of atoms, also repel one another (see Atom). Negative and positive particles, however, attract each other. This behavior may be summed up as: like charges repel, and unlike charges attract. [pic] Lightning Charges between clouds or between a cloud and the ground produce atmospheric electrical discharges—lightning. The flow of electricity from one discharge point to another also produces a sound wave heard as thunder. 2. Short History BeforeRead MoreFoster - Twentieth Century Hero Essay2782 Words   |  12 Pagesnovel An Island Is a World (1955) introduces the readers to the middle-class protagonist, Foster. As the narrative unfolds, Foster is exposed as an introspective cogitating protagonist whose actions do not positively correlate with his thought processes. He can be seen as, a character whose attractiveness or interest consists of the inability to perform deeds of bravery, courage or generosity. Consequently, it can be said that Foster possesses traits of the common unheroic working-class protagonistRead MorePhysics in Daily Life13985 Words   |  56 Pagesand simple trigonometrical functions (sin, cos, tan, and their inverses in degrees) is recommended. Standard notation and SI units will be used. When one quantity is divided by another, the solidus will be used, e.g. m/s but the notation ms-1 will also be accepted. The acceleration of free fall, g, which will be given in the question paper, will be taken as 10 m/s2. Supplementary Units 3 SEC Syllabus (2012): Physics Practical Work Aims Through practical work candidates should be able to carryRead MorePlanning for Change - A History of IBM Essay3690 Words   |  15 Pagesbrought IBM- and the world- into the digital computer age.- Louis Gerstner, Who Says Elephants cant Dance. Electro- mechanical tabulation and punch card devices introduced computation to business and IBM scored a win, with a contract in which they were to automate the social security system for the US government. - Technological, economic, socio cultural/ customer relationships. IBM scored a huge win when it was by U.S. federal government to help star up and automate the Social Security systemRead MoreSAP AG: Orchestrating the ecosystem7160 Words   |  29 PagesHarvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 9-609-069 SAP AG: Orchestrating the Ecosystem achieve the holy grail of interoperability and reusability both inside and outside of its customers’

Mesothelioma Free Essays

Mesothelioma is a malignant neoplasm that develops from the mesothelium tissue (a membrane that covers the internal organs present in the body).   It occurs very rarely and is more frequently caused by inhaling asbestos dust.   The incidence of the disease is slowly on the rise. We will write a custom essay sample on Mesothelioma or any similar topic only for you Order Now    In the US, about 2000 new cases are reported every year.   About 70 to 80% of all cases with mesothelioma report exposure to asbestos (NCI, 2002).   Mesothelioma can develop in various sites of the body including the pleura (membranes that covers the lungs), peritoneum (membrane that covers the abdominal cavity), tunica vaginalis testis (membrane that covers the male internal reproductive organs) and tunica serosa uteri (membrane that covers the female internal reproductive organs) (NCI, 2002). It is made up of one layer of flat or cuboidal cells that surround a particular organ or an organ set belonging to a particular group (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006).   In between these membranes a fluid is present that permits some amount of movement during physiologic functioning.   When the asbestos is inhaled, it gets deposited into parenchyma of the lungs from where it enters the immediate membrane that covers the lungs.   It may be carried soon to the other membrane of the lung.   The tumor usually begins as discrete plaques known as ‘malignant mesothelial plaques’ (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006). These discrete masses soon combine to form a large sheet like lesion that spreads.   The exact process by which mesothelioma occurs is not understood clearly, however, it seems that chronic irritation of the membrane plays a very important role (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006).   The chromosomes present in the cell are distorted (Tan, 2007).   One of the most frequent changes in the malignant cell was the loss of a copy of Chromosome 22. The chromosomal picture of the cell seems to be very complex (complex karyotype) and is rearranged (Tan, 2007).   Sometimes, the chromosome arms of 1p, 3p, 9p and 6q may also get structurally rearranged.   This may be brought about by close contact between the chromosomes or the structural proteins with the asbestos particles (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006). The asbestos may get deposited in the peritoneum either through the lymphatic system or the due ingestion of the sputum from the lungs (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006).   The long thin fibers of asbestos are more dangerous than the feathery fibers as they more easily cause cancer.   Once the fibers get deposited in the pleura, the cancer development process actually begins.   In experimental rats, it has been observed that when the pleura or the peritoneum are invaded by the asbestos particles, macrophages and the other cells of the body’s defense mechanism accumulate (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006). As the disease progresses, the macrophages and immune cells continue to invade the lesion.   Slowly the cells get transformed into malignancy.   Studies have demonstrated that the asbestos particles may directly (through physical interaction) and indirectly (through accumulation of macrophages) bring about malignant transformation of the epithelium cells.   Indirectly, the macrophages begin to function abnormally.   They phagocyte the asbestos particles and release higher amounts of hydroxyl radicals. They may stimulate the cancer process by affecting the DNA present in the cell.   Several other substances are released from the macrophages such as mitogens, growth factors, etc, which may bring about chronic irritation.   They also alter entry of certain substances into the cell (by affecting the membrane) and reducing the effect of antioxidant action within the cells.   Asbestos is also known to suppress the action of the body’s defense mechanism by overcoming the action of the lymphocytes (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006). Several structural and functional features have been observed in the cells affected with mesothelioma (which have asbestos particles within the cells): – 1.the suppressor genes against cancers present in the cells may get inactivated when the asbestos fibers enters the cells 2.other cancer-stimulating agents may get activated and affect the cell 3. the DNA of the cell gets altered due to the incorporation of a foreign DNA which encourages cancer formation 4. the DNA repair enzymes may get stimulated and frequently result in a faulty method of repair 5.the cell terminal processes may become abnormal resulting in immortality 6.the DNA sequence may be added at the ends of the cell which makes the cells immortal and results in abnormal functioning (Weitz Luxenberg, 2006) References: NCI. Mesothelioma: Questions and Answers. 2002. NCI. 5 Apr. 2007 Tan W.W. â€Å"Mesothelioma.† 2007. E-Medicine. 5 Apr. 2007 Weitz Luxenberg. â€Å"The Pathophysiology of Mesothelioma.† 2006. Weitz Luxenberg Inc. 5 Apr. 2007 How to cite Mesothelioma, Essay examples

Information Security for Integrity and Availability Requirements

Question: Discuss about theInformation Security for Integrity and Availability Requirements. Answer: Confidentiality, integrity and availability requirements The below points shows the examples of confidentiality, integrity and availability requirements of ATM. Confidentiality: The example of entering PIN shows the confidentiality scenario. The customer intends to use their card such as debit card or credit card by entering PIN to get access their account through swiping the card into ATM system (Saxena Patel, 2017). Thus, the customer eventually expects that the PIN to be secure and confidential in the ATM system. This expectation is not only while swiping but also during transactions through the communication between the bank server and the ATM system. The degree of importance for confidentiality is unsecure and unsafe PIN while the transaction occurred may result in compromising of bank account. This shows that encryption of PIN is necessary and should be done properly. Integrity: The example of withdrawing cash shows the integrity scenario. The customer withdraws $350 from ATM and the account balance is $3350 (Ghafari, Arian Analoui, 2015). The ATM if accidentally updates $2950 in the account of customer instead of showing and updating $3350 then this causes unexpected havoc and loss of balance amount. The degree of importance for integrity is the transaction performed in the system can directly affect the account of customer. Hence, transaction should have integrity that is without any accidental or malicious changes. Availability: The example of serving to all customers at all times shows the availability scenario. The customer go to ATM system and wants to withdraw cash however, the system is out of service (Salnitri, Dalpiaz Giorgini, 2014). This can result into problems for the customer if the customer has emergency for cash. The degree of importance for availability is that ATM system should be available to the customers at all times without any hassle. It can serve to all customers at all times. Maximum number of PINs entered by the thief before entering the correct PIN Solution: The thief tries to enter the correct pin however, before entering the correct pin the thief has to try different number of PINs. The calculation for the maximum number of PINs to be entered for getting the correct PIN number is given as follows. The PIN is of 4 digit number and the thief has to enter between 0000 to 9999 because 0 and 9 are the lowest and highest number in the keypad of ATM. Thus the maximum number of PINs to be entered by the thief is 5P4. Reasons for reluctance to use bio-metrics and possible measures Solution: The below points provide reasons for reluctance in using bio-metrics for people. Accuracy issues- The biometrics is not accurate as there are several factors that hinder the accuracy of bio-metrics. There is probability that bio-metrics can control illegitimate access because of wrong matching is close to zero (Akhtar et al., 2017). However, there is less probability that it will verify legitimate user. The accuracy issues can be countered by using all the possible body parts that can be used for authentication in bio-metrics. Cost- The cost factor is another reason because bio-metrics is costly to use and implement at any place whether at company level or country level (Hadid, 2014). The ways to counter the cost factor is by implementing the bio-metrics that is required for particular area and reasons. Single points of failure- The biometrics if fails to function will lead to halt the entire system in an organization or ATM system or any other place where bio-metrics is used (Martinovic et al., 2017). The biometrics recognizes people and if it fails then all the system will stop functioning. The single points of failure can be countered by controlling the entire system. Circumstances for seriousness of false negatives are more than false positives The two circumstances are given below for false negatives are more than false positives. The situation when a person is an owner of safe and the person wants to access its safe for an emergency because the person needs money (Eberz et al., 2015). However, the owner is prevented from accessing its safe because biometrics does not recognize the owner. Then this causes serious false negatives which poses problems for the person. The other situation when an employee in an organization collapses due to cardiac arrest and the employee is unable to go out. In this situation when another employee goes to the employee to help and at that situation when the biometric does not recognizes the employee then the employees who is collapsed could die (Pandey Verma, 2015). This is the case where false negative can lead to compromise of an individuals health. Transposition technique for a cypher text The step by step demonstration for decipher of text is given below in the following table. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Encrypted Text N T J W K H X K Corresponding numeric value 14 20 10 23 11 8 24 11 Key 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 Decoded from the substitution cipher 12 17 6 21 8 4 22 8 Caeser cipher shift 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Decoded from the caeser cipher 9 14 3 18 5 1 19 5 Decoded Text I N C R E A S E Encrypted Text A M K Corresponding numeric value 1 13 11 Key 4 2 3 Decoded from the substitution cipher 23 11 8 Caeser cipher shift 3 3 3 Decoded from the caeser cipher 20 8 5 Decoded Text T H E Encrypted Text W W U J J Y Z T X Corresponding numeric value 23 23 21 10 10 25 26 20 24 Key 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 Decoded from the substitution cipher 19 21 18 6 8 22 22 18 21 Caeser cipher shift 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Decoded from the caeser cipher 16 18 15 3 5 19 19 15 18 Decoded Text P R O C E S S O R Encrypted Text M W K X Z K U H E Corresponding numeric value 13 23 11 24 26 11 21 8 5 Key 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 Decoded from the substitution cipher 9 21 8 20 24 8 17 6 2 Caeser cipher shift 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Decoded from the caeser cipher 6 18 5 17 21 5 14 3 25 Decoded Text F R E Q U E N C Y References Akhtar, Z., Hadid, A., Nixon, M., Tistarelli, M., Dugelay, J. L., Marcel, S. (2017). Biometrics: In Search of Identity and Security (Q A).IEEE MultiMedia. Eberz, S., Rasmussen, K. B., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I. (2017, April). Evaluating behavioral biometrics for continuous authentication: Challenges and metrics. InProceedings of the 2017 ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security(pp. 386-399). ACM. Ghafari, Z., Arian, T., Analoui, M. (2015). SFAMSS: a secure framework for atm machines via secret sharing.arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.03078. Hadid, A. (2014). Face biometrics under spoofing attacks: Vulnerabilities, countermeasures, open issues, and research directions. InProceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops(pp. 113-118). Martinovic, I., Rasmussen, K., Roeschlin, M., Tsudik, G. (2017). Authentication using pulse-response biometrics.Communications of the ACM,60(2), 108-115. Pandey, R. M., Verma, V. K. (2015). Data Security using Various Cryptography Techniques: A recent Survey. Salnitri, M., Dalpiaz, F., Giorgini, P. (2014). Modeling and verifying security policies in business processes. InEnterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling(pp. 200-214). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Saxena, P., Patel, R. B. (2017). Analysis Of Distributed Environment Based Online Banking Security.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Christianity and Rastafarianism-a Discussion of Six Similarities free essay sample

Christianity and Rastafarianism A Discussion of Six Similarities Christianity and Rastafarianism are both rooted in Judaism and draw from the Hebrew sacred scriptures. Rastafarianism evolved as a reaction to the Christianity that was imposed upon African-American slaves and their descendents. There are several other aspects in which these two religions are similar, the purpose of this paper is to explore some of those similarities. The Christian religion began around 2000 years ago in Judea, which is now Israel. Christianity began with Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples. Jesus traveled from village to village, teaching in the synagogues, and healing those who were sick and suffering. He challenged the authorities to repent from their sin. Jesus teachings created instability, which the Jewish religious authorities feared. Soon, a faithful group of men began to follow Jesus and call him teacher. These men became His disciples. Jesus taught His disciples about the will of God and about the new covenant God will bring to humanity through Him. Jesus helped them to see that mankind is bound to the pain and futility of life as a result of sin. Because of sin, mankind lost his relationship with God. The purpose of the new covenant was to bring his followers a renewed fellowship of forgiveness and love with God. Jesus was crucified and three days later rose again. After which, the disciples continued to proclaim the gospel. And share the message of hope throughout the territories (The History of Christianity). The Rastafari movement began in the Jamaican slums in the 1920s and 30s. Marcus Garvey founded Rastafarianism, a black Jamaican who taught in the 1920s and whom some believed to be the second John the Baptist. He taught that Africans are the true Israelites and have been exiled to Jamaica and other parts of the world as divine punishment. Garvey encouraged pride in being black and worked to reverse the mindset of inferiority that centuries of enslavement had ingrained on the minds of blacks. The reggae music of Bob Marley, brought international recognition to the Jamaican movement. Bob Marley is likely the most famous Rastafarian. The Rastafarian movement is named for Ras Tafari Makonnen, who was crowned Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia in 1930. Followers of the movement are known as Rastafarians, Rastafaris, Rastas, or Ras Tafarians. Rastafaris dislike the term Rastafarianism because they reject the isms and schisms that characterize oppressive and corrupt white society (Rastafari). The Rastafari movement has a lot of variation and little formal organization. Most consider Rasta to be more a way of life than a religion. The belief in the divinity of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I, the influence of Jamaican culture, resistance of oppression, and the great pride in their African heritage are the uniting factors of the Rastas. Rastafaris ritually use marijuana, they avoid alcohol, wear their hair in dreadlocks, and are usually either vegetarian or Vegan. In an environment of great poverty, depression, racism and class discrimination, the Rasta message of black pride, freedom from oppression, and the hope of return to the African homeland was gratefully received. (Rastafari) Even though these two religions are different in many aspects there are also several similarities. Six examples are provided below. First Similarity-The Divine Reality: Christians and Rastafarians both view their divine reality similarly, through the incarnation of God. Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God, part of the Trinity. What this means to them is that God came to this earth in the form of a man, in order to die on a cross for all humanity. Jesus is often referred to as the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world because of His death on the cross. (History of Christianity) The Rasta movement accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as Jah. This is the Rastafarian name for God incarnate, taken from a shortened form of Jehovah. Jah is part of the Holy Trinity, the messiah promised to return in the Bible. Rastafari’s believe Tafari Makonnen, who was crowned Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia on November 2nd, 1930 is the living God incarnate, called Jah. He is the black Messiah that will lead the worlds people of African origin into the Promised Land of full emancipation and divine justice. This is partly because of his titles King of Kings, Lord of Lords and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah. These titles match those of the Messiah mentioned in the book of Revelation, in the Christian New Testament (Rastafari). Second Similarity-The Creation of the World: Just as the Christian Bible begins with, â€Å"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth†, (Holy Bible) The Holy Piby, the Rastafarian Bible, begins with, â€Å"From the beginning there was God and he spake and all things were made that are made†. Both of these sacred texts go on to state that God made man for his glory and then made woman for man, God called the man Adam and the woman Eve. (Holy Piby) Both of the sacred texts also agree that God rested on the seventh day and said that men should also use the seventh day as a day of rest. Third Similarity-Worship Practices: Christian worship centers on meetings or services held on Sunday. These services consist of Biblical readings, communion, and music either with or without instrumental accompaniment, prayer, a teaching from the Bible in the form of a sermon and a collection of tithes. Other forms of worship, such as individual meditation, prayer and study or small group prayer complement regular public worship (History of Christianity). Rastafarian ritual observances are largely based on the Old Testament. In their worship services Rastafarians, similar to Christian’s sermons, recite biblical passages and discuss their â€Å"reasonings† or understandings of them. The smoking of marijuana is essential to these sessions. Marijuana is described by Rastafarians as the mystical body and blood of â€Å"Jesus. † It enhances enlightenment and serves to bring him closer to God. In part Rastafarian religious services do not conform to the scheduled nature of religious services most Americans are used to. However Rasta religious services, including the use of ganja, (marijuana), do conform to specific rules and doctrines. The ganja pipes, for example, are considered to be holy objects (Norgren, Nanda, 142). Fourth Similarity-Rituals: Beginning in the 4th century Christians’ had their babies baptized as soon as possible after birth. This ritual began when many believed that infants who died before being baptized would not enter heaven. For most Christians baptism has become the means by which a baby becomes a member of the church. After the baptism, the priest holds the child up and says: -‘The servant of God (giving the child its name) is baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen (Keene, 90). Similar to the Christian baptism, when a child is born into the Rastafari tradition he or she is blessed by the elders in the community. This ritual usually includes a session of drumming, chanting and prayer, at which time hild is named and given over to God (Rastafari). Another similar ritual in these religions is the observance of the birthdays of each religion’s Messiah. Christian’s celebration of Christmas for Jesus’ birthday, Rastafaris’ celebrate Selassie’s birthday on July 23rd of each year. Fifth Similarity-Belief about Human Soul: Ras tafarians and Christians both believe that humans have a soul that does not die but either goes to or awaits final judgement. Rastafarians believe that the human soul does not die but at the time of death the soul goes to judgement and is sent to heaven or hell (Chevannes, 28). Christians believe that although the body dies, the soul of both the believer and the unbeliever continues to live. Believers await the consummation of their redemption with the resurrection and glorification of their bodies, while the unbelievers await the eternal judgement of God (Sproul, 134). Sixth Similarity-Leadership Structure: Rastafarian meetings, called ‘groundations’ (a compound of ‘ground’ and ‘foundations’), almost always entail the use of ganja, (marijuana), which is held to be calming and conducive to cool reasoning. Such meetings are democratic, free debate is encouraged, and one may agree or disagree with the outcome. These meetings are one of the few times that leadership is seen in the Rastafarian movement. A ‘leading brother’-sometimes known as a ‘brother priest’-presides over them and he is assisted by a chaplain. Below the priest and chaplain are the ‘recording secretary’ and the treasurer. Sergeants at arms guard the meeting. The meetings tend to be male dominated, with little – if any – place for women, who may at most be assigned the role of ‘leader of songs’ (Chryssides, 276-77). In Christianity we also see the same type of leadership structure with the priest, deacon, and elders who all have different parts in leading the church services. Although these two religions appear to be very different at first glance, taking a closer look, we see they are similar in several aspects including: perception of the divine reality, the creation of the world, rituals, belief about the human soul, as well as their leadership structure. Works Cited Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari: roots and ideology. New York: Syracuse UP,1994. Chryssides, George D. Exploring New Religions. New York: Continuum, 1999. History of Christianity: fact based faith. All about religion. 02 Nov 2010. http://www. allaboutreligion. org/history-of-christianity. htm Holy Bible. Colorado Springs: International Bible Society, 1994. Holy Piby. 2006. Keene, Michael. The Christian Experience. Cheltenham: Thornes, 1995. Norgren, Jill and Serina, Nanda. American Cultural: Pluralism and Law. Ed. 3 Westport: Praeger, 2006. Rastafari. Religion Facts: just the facts on religion. Ed. 02 Aug 2010. http://www. religionfacts. com/a-z-religion-index/rastafarianism. htm Sproul, R. C. Essential Truths of the Christian Faith. New York: Nelson Inc, 1992.